The Hiden HPR-40 DSA mass spectrometer systems are designed for monitoring dissolved gaseous content in aqueous solutions. All systems feature a media interface with semi-permeable membrane to enrich the transition of gases and vapours and simultaneously inhibit the transfer of water vapour. Applications include diverse areas of microbiological study including fermentation culture analysis, biofuel research, methane generation, soil core sampling, seawater and freshwater evaluation. The systems enable real-time monitoring of dissolved gaseous species in bioreactor operation and in evolved fermenter off gas, including continuous measurement of CO2, O2 and N2 organic vapours. Interface types include slim immersion probes for static media and circular flow through membrane carriers for flowing media, with choice of membrane and membrane area to optimise sensitivity for specific gaseous species. For photo-responsive studies, cuvette-style vessels are available with integral agitation and capacities ranging from 2 mL to 500 mL.