The presence of “particles” in protein pharmaceuticals (biologics) can cause severe, unwanted effects in the drug. The article describes the use of mid-infrared micro-spectroscopy for the investigation and chemical characterisation of single particles in these biologics.
How a cat manages to turn and land on its feet may not be the most obvious start to an article in Spectroscopy Europe. However, C.J. Milne and M. Chergui use the example in their article on “Time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy” to show how the time dimension is important in many analyses and applications. There has been a real surge in time-resolved X-ray absorption studies in chemistry, biology and materials science. Picosecond time resolution is routinely achieved and femtosecond resolution has been demonstrated at synchrotrons, albeit at the cost of a significantly reduced photon flux. However, the advent of hard X-ray-free electron lasers offer the promise of making such studies routine.
Even though lead in fuel has been banned for a number of years, it is still present in by the roadside, as are many other pollutants from vehicles. The combination of Raman spectroscopy and µ-ED-XRF is of particular value. The advantage Raman has is in the possibility of focusing on individual grains, thereby obtaining the spectrum of each grain that comes from traffic-emitted particles.
In principle, electromagnetic SEIRS should be as strong as electromagnetic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) but, in SEIRS, disturbing fluorescence is absent. In order to get maximum IR vibrational signal enhancement for sensing of rare molecules, strong resonant scattering of plasmonic objects is recommended.
Philipp Gütlich, Christian Schröder and Volker Schünemann update us on “Mössbauer spectroscopy—an indispensable tool in solid state research”. One of the more high-profile applications of the technique has been its use in the exploration of Mars. Whilst the latest NASA mission to Mars that successfully landed on 6 August, when we were putting this issue together, does not have a Mössbauer spectrometer onboard, the earlier Opportunity rover does and is still active on Mars at present and the next mission will again. There are many other fascinating applications of Mössbauer spectroscopy which make this article one you must read.
- Mass spectrometry investigations of nanoparticles by tandem charge detection mass spectrometry
- Infrared spectroscopy of nucleoprotein complexes
- Measuring brain activity using functional near infrared spectroscopy: a short review
- Following lipids in the food chain: determination of the iodine value using Raman micro-spectroscopy
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Techniques and Tools for Trace Metals and Nutritional Food Analysis
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- Atomic absorption
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